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14-12-2017 19:47:57
 
Bogotá
2014-12-17

 

La puja del Salario Mínimo, Remuneraciones y Distribución del Ingreso Año 2015.

Héctor Vásquez F.

Sólo $30.000 mensuales es la diferencia que separa a empleadores y trabajadores. 


SintraemsdesSsalarioMinimo2
En la discusión sobre el incremento del salario mínimo mientras que el sector privado propone un alza de 4,5%, las centrales obreras reclaman que el ajuste sea del 9,5%, lo que equivale a una oferta de los empresarios de $27.720, y a una reivindicación de los trabajadores de $58.520.

 

Pero más allá de estas posiciones, ¿cuál es el modelo de sociedad que defiende cada una de las partes en la mesa de concertación?

 

Los empleadores siempre han encubierto sus intereses con argumentos tales como que incrementos significativos del salario mínimo, al encarecer el precio de la mano de obra, desestimulan la contratación de trabajadores, lo que incrementaría la tasa de desempleo; de que incrementos por encima de la productividad del trabajo impactarían negativamente sobre los precios aumentando el costo de vida; que en Colombia el salario mínimo está muy cercano al salario medio, lo que genera desincentivos para la creación de nuevas plazas laborales que demanden mano de obra no calificada.

 

Los resultados económicos de los últimos años no confirman ninguna de estas hipótesis. En efecto, aunque ha habido incrementos por encima del IPC causado y de los incrementos de productividad del trabajo que reporta Planeación Nacional, la tasa de desempleo ha estado bajando, la tasa de ocupación de los profesionales se ha incrementado, y la inflación ha estado completamente controlada en los términos que promueve el Banco de la República.

 

Distribución del Valor Agregado

 

 

Industria manufacturera

Comercio, reparación, restaurantes y hoteles

Transporte, almacenamiento y comunicaciones

Valor agregado

100

100

100

Remuneración a los asalariados

34,3

41,7

27,8

Remuneración al capital:

62,3

56,3

68,4

-          Excedente bruto de explotación

52,1

6,6

37,0

-          Ingreso mixto

10,2

49,7

31,4

Fuente: DANE, Valor Agregado según ramas de actividad económica y PIB (Clasificación Cuentas Nacionales). 2012. Cálculos propios.

 

SintraemsdesSsalarioMinimo1
La tabla anterior nos permite ilustrar cuáles son los intereses reales que se ocultan tras las posiciones que los empleadores ponen sobre la mesa de concertación del salario mínimo. En la tabla anterior el DANE muestra cómo en el 2012 se distribuyó el valor agregado, o la nueva riqueza generada, en tres de las divisiones económicas que más empleo generan: cerca de 10 millones de trabajadores, o sea 47,9% del empleo total para ese año.

 

La participación más alta de las remuneraciones (salarios, seguridad social y parafiscales) la tienen los trabajadores del sector del comercio, reparación, restaurantes y hoteles, con el 41,7%. La mayoría de los trabajadores que están ubicados en esta división apenas reciben alrededor de un salario mínimo. Le siguen los trabajadores de la industria, con una participación del 34,3% en el valor agregado; la mayoría de estos trabajadores están más cercanos al salario básico medio de los trabajadores vinculados con contrato de trabajo ($982.000). Finalmente están los trabajadores de la división de transporte, almacenamiento y comunicaciones, con una participación del 27,8% en la riqueza generada.

 

En cambio, en todas estas divisiones, la participación del capital en el valor agregado es altísima: 62,3% en la industria, 56,3% en las actividades de comercio, reparación, hoteles y restaurantes, y 68,4% en las actividades de transporte, almacenamiento y comunicaciones. Para el DANE el excedente bruto de explotación y el ingreso mixto corresponden a la tasa de ganancia del capital, denominando excedente de explotación el que originan las empresas constituidas en sociedad, e ingreso mixto el que originan las empresas no constituidas en sociedad y que son propiedad de los hogares.

 

Como se desprende de los datos incluidos en la tabla anterior, en estas divisiones -y en general en toda la economía colombiana- hay espacio para mejorar ingresos de los trabajadores sin que se afecte para nada el empleo y la competitividad de las empresas. La única consecuencia negativa sería sobre la participación del capital en el valor agregado, que en efecto sí disminuiría, pero esta disminución sería una muy buena noticia para el país, que en materia de desigualdad es uno de los campeones, como lo señala el DANE:

 

La desigualdad de los ingresos a nivel nacional registró 0,539 puntos. Se presentó un aumento en los dominios de cabeceras y trece áreas. En las cabeceras, el coeficiente Gini se situó en 0,517, en comparación con el 2012  cuando registró 0,514. Por su parte, en las trece áreas el Gini fue 0,505 en 2013, frente a 0,499 en 2012”. 

 

Los argumentos de la patronal en contra de la reivindicación de las centrales obreras en la discusión sobre el incremento del salario mínimo, lo que en el fondo promueven es su interés de mantener esta sociedad excluyente y desigual que tanto los beneficia a ellos, como se ve en los datos sobre distribución del valor agregado y del Coeficiente de GINI.

 

En el fondo se trata de una posición que a la larga los perjudica a ellos y a todo el país, pues la desigualdad y la exclusión son generadoras de violencia e inseguridad, lo que no es bueno para los negocios. Trabajadores mejor remunerados son un factor de crecimiento y de estabilidad económica, pues incrementa el consumo de los hogares, el factor que desde la demanda tiene la mayor incidencia en el crecimiento de Producto Interno Bruto.


 
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