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14-12-2017 19:43:20
 
Bogota
2013-08-13

 

La industria minera en America Latina: una presencia que molesta

Por:PASC et PAQG

las organizaciones de la sociedad civil y activistas denuncian los casos de violaciones de derechos humanos ligados a la presencia minera.


industria_minera
MONTREAL, 11 de agosto de 2013. - Mientras que en el día de hoy, se abre en Montreal el Congreso Minero Mundial, donde más de 1,500 representantes de empresas a través del mundo se reunen para discutir sobre el futuro de la industria; las organizaciones de la sociedad civil y activistas denuncian los casos de violaciones de derechos humanos ligados a la presencia minera canadiense en los paises «en desarollo».

 

En los ultimos años, la industria minera esta en el centro de las preocupaciones de la comunidades y de las instituciones. En el año 2006, el Représentante especial de Naciones Unidas en el asunto de los derechos humanos y las sociedades transnacionales y otras empresas, describía la industria minera y extractivista como «un caso particular, porque ningún otro sector tiene una influencia tan grande y tan invasora a nivel social y ambiental» y que 2/3 de los abusos cometidos por las transnacionales provienen del sector extractivo. Un informe pedido por la Asociacion de los prospectores y desarrolladores del Canadá que fué publicado por Alerta Minera Canada (Mining Watch Canada), revela que de 171 incidentes cometidos por la industria minera, el 34% lo registraron empresas canadienses. El 62% de los incidentes provenian de conflictos con las comunidades locales.

 

Guatemala : Imposición de proyectos mineros y represión de los movimientos sociales

 

En Guatemala, el derecho de los pueblos ancestrales al consentimiento libre, previo e informado no es respetado y las concesiones mineras son impuestas a las comunidades afectadas. Según el Consejo de los pueblos del Occidente, más de un millón de personas, a través de mas de 60 consultas populares, han rechazado el modelo extractivista. Paralelamente, vemos el aumento de la criminalización y la persecución de las personas y organizaciones compremetidas en la organización de estas consultas. Según la Unidad de protección de lo(a)s defensore(a)s de derechos humanos en Guatemala (UDEFEGUA), los ataques contra lo(a)s defensore(a)s del territorio y del ambiente representan 28,3% de todas las agresiones contra lo(a)s defensore(a)s de derechos humanos.

 

Un estado de sitio fue decretado el pasado mes de mayo en las comunidades que se oponen al proyecto minero de la empresa canadiense Tahoe Ressrouces, en la que Goldcorp tiene un 40% de las acciones. Un empleado de la compañía canadiense esta acusado de haber ordenado asesinar a los opositores a la mina. El 3 de junio, la clínica legal Justice and Corporate Accountability, proyecto de la Universidad de York, depositó una queja oficial en la Comisión de valores mobiliarios de la provincia de Ontario a propósito de estos hechos, y subrayando que el Fondo de Pensiones de Canadá financia a la empresa Tahoe. El 22 de julio de 2013, la Corte superior de Ontario aceptó escuchar la causa de las guatemaltecas víctimas de violaciones y de asesinatos cometidos en el sitio de explotación minera de la empresa canadiense Hudbay. El 9 de agosto del 2013, en la Jornada Internacional de los pueblos indígenas, 15000 campesino(a)s hicieron bloqueos en Guatemala para denunciar los impactos del modelo neoliberal; defender el territorio contra los megaproyectos y demostrar el rechazo de cualquier acción represiva contra las mujeres y las comunidades. En su investigación de 2012-2013, el Instituto Fraser clasifica a Guatemala entre los 10 paises menos atractivos en el mundo en términos de inversión minera. La presencia minera canadiense en Guatemala esta asociada con algidas tensiones, violencia que llega incluso hasta asesinatos.

 

Colombia : entre enormes ganancias y costos sociales considerables

 

En Colombia, como en Guatemala, la industria minera también trae consecuencias socio-ambientales importantes para las comunidades. La ultima investigación hecha por la Contraloria General, vincula de manera evidente, las industrias extractivas a los conflictos armados y a la violación de derechos humanos, afirmando que: el 80% de las violaciones de derechos humanos, el 87% de desplazamientos forzados, el 78% de crímenes contra los sindicatos, el 89% de crímenes contra los indígenas y el 90% de los crímenes contra las personas afrodescendientes se producen en las regiones de extracción minera y petrolera. Frente a estos hechos, lo(a)s autore(a)s de la investigación defienden que se de una moratoria deberia en contra de todas la concesiones mineras de Colombia hasta que el gobierno colombiano modifique sus politicas de regulación de las actividades extractivas. Recordemos que mas de 50% de las inversiones en el sector minero son canadienses. Las protestas contra esas empresas canadienses son numerosas, « desde el 17 de julio, los mineros artesanales declararon un paro minero nacional para reclamar sus derechos territoriales mientras que corren el riesgo de ser desplazados por la presión del Estado y de las empresas mineras » cita a manera de ejemplo Louis-Philippe de Grandpré, integrante del PASC.

 

Numerosos son los casos en los que la industria minera esta asociada al surgimiento de conflictos, el aumento de la militarización, la violencia sexual, de intimidaciones y daños ambientales y sociales importantes.

 

La industria extractiva tiene que respetar el derecho de los pueblos indigenas al consentimiento libre, previo e informado y debe estar controlado por politicas públicas punitivas en Canadá, garantizando el respeto a los derechos humanos y normas ambientales en el extranjero.

 

La autoregulación de la industria no es suficiente para atacar los problemas. Con total ausencia de vonluntad poltíca de los gobiernos para implementar leyes punitivas, la impunidad corporativa de las mineras seguirá y la oposición ciudadana aumentará.


 
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